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Statistics Canada on Demographics and Legal Aid


Excerpts of interest out of the 1998 06 24 issue of The Daily from StatCan. 
My comments are shown in italics. — Walter

Subject:     The Daily for: 1998-06-24
Date:         Wed, 24 Jun 1998 08:54:23 -0400
From:         godfrey@statcan.ca (Jackie Godfrey)
Reply-To:   daily@talon.statcan.ca

**      What's in today's DAILY     **

Note: Order form for publications, at bottom of Daily [order form available at the link shown below --WHS]

PDF downloadable file for Netscape Mail users:
http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/980624/d980624.pdf

98 06 24 08 30
Wednesday, June 24, 1998 For release at 8:30 a.m.

MAJOR RELEASES
     Wholesale trade, [snipped from body of text --WHS]
     Demographic situation in Canada,

OTHER RELEASES
     Legal aid expenditures and caseload statistics,
     Telephone statistics, [snipped from body of text --WHS]  

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wholesale trade [snipped]

-------------------------------------------
Demographic situation in Canada 1997

According to the most recent estimates, births in Canada declined for a sixth consecutive year in 1996. This trend shows no sign of reversing. As the death rate continues to rise, it is likely that by the year 2020, Canada's natural growth in the population will approach zero.
   These developments accentuate a situation that has been anticipated for a number of years, namely that population growth in Canada will depend increasingly on immigration. Immigrants represented 17.4% of the population in 1996 - the largest share in more than 50 years. [The official number of abortions in Canada is just over 100,000 per year.  It must be cheaper to import people from underdeveloped countries than it is to raise our own. --WHS]

Substantial decline in natural growth since 1991

   Natural growth in the Canadian population declined substantially from 7.7 to 5.7 per 1 000 between 1990 and 1995. By 1996, natural growth accounted for only 47% of the total growth, while immigration accounted for 53%. In the United States, immigration accounts for only one third of the annual total population growth.
    An aging population reduces natural growth since it is accompanied by an increase in deaths. At the same time, the number of births continues to decline, and, will likely remain falling for a number of years for two reasons. First, the total fertility rate has remained practically unchanged at 1.6 children per woman for several years. Second, there are fewer women of child-bearing age born during the "baby bust" years following the strong baby-boom generations. Since the anticipated baby-boom echo was minimal, if present at all, the decline in the number of births, already apparent, will leave a gap in the age structure in the years to come.
   Unless there is an immediate and significant recovery of the fertility rate (which is highly unlikely) the decline in the number of births will continue before stabilizing at a relatively low level. This would suggest that between 2020 and 2030, the number of births will equal the number of deaths, producing a natural growth rate of zero in Canada.

[The important point is that even right now Canada wouldn't be able to maintain population growth without relying on immigration.  The preceding paragraph implies that in the time frame 2020 - 2030, even at current rates of immigration, population growth can't be maintained.  That means that either we establish policies which encourage people to have larger families, or we must face the need for massive increases in the rate of immigration.  There are other implications.

One way to prevent population growth from falling below replacement rates would be to discourage the promotion of liberal abortion policies.  About one third of Canadian pregnancies annually currently end in the death of the unborn child.  If abortions were currently outlawed (which not too long ago they were) that alone would suffice to maintain Canada's population growth without having to rely on immigration.

Another implication of a birth rate below replacement levels is that we will have such a large population of elderly Cartoon showing disproportionate burden of providing for the elderlypeople that it will become increasingly more difficult for the young income earners to maintain and support the population of the elderly. 
  
The population sector containing the elderly grows at an unprecedented rate in absolute terms and especially in relative terms with respect to the size of the younger productive population sector that has to bear the increasingly unbearably large responsibility to care and provide for those who can't produce anything any longer for themselves.  One of the consequences of that is an enormous increase (150% in the US from 1986 to 1996) in elderly abuse, predominantly cases of neglect of the elderly. (Trends in Elder Abuse in Domestic Settings, NATIONAL CENTER ON ELDER ABUSE, Elder Abuse Information Series No. 2 (PDF 42kB).  The St. Louis Post-Dispatch produced an excellent series of articles on the topic of fatal elder abuse and neglect in US nursing homes (it is estimated that tens of tousands of cases happen each year), Neglected to Death (Oct. 12 - 19, 2002).  See abstract and commentary relating to the articles and to the problem of elder abuse and neglect in nursing home and hospitals.)

   In view of the on-going exploitation of the Canadian Pension Plan funds, such funding doesn't exist, because all along money that should have gone into funding went into the government's general revenue, to be spent immediately as it comes in.  The future demand on the CPP represents an unfunded liability of more than $600 billion dollars.  That is something that the government continues to hide from us when it presents statements about our financial affairs.  What is contemplated to cover this unfunded liability is to increase taxation of income earners (yes, CPP contributions will have to be increased far above the levels that are currently contemplated, and yes, such contributions are taxation).

There is another way out of this dilemma, that is to establish liberal policies for euthanasia, which, given the alternative of letting the elderly starve to death, may be the most humane method to deal with the problem of a burgeoning population of the elderly.  Don't think that this too far out.  The push for that is on.  It is no more difficult to make a policy of deliberate murder of the elderly palatable than it was to implement a policy of deliberate murder of the unborn.  We'll learn to live with that too, as long as we allow the bureaucrats to tell us how we must live our lives and what constitutes a good quality of life. WHS]

Voluntary sterilizations: Significant impact on fertility

   In a comparison with other Western countries (especially European) Canada's rate of sterilization stands out. Voluntary sterilization has a significant impact on fertility because the practice is so widespread, the people having it done are so young, and it is nearly always irreversible.
   According to the 1995 General Social Survey, 4.5 million Canadian couples where the women is under the age of 50 (or 46% of all couples in their reproductive years) were sterile for either natural, medical or contraceptive reasons.
   Despite an appreciable increase in male sterilization since 1984, the woman was the sterilized partner in most sterile couples (58%). In 1995, an estimated 2.7 million women under the age of 50 who were living with a male partner had been surgically sterilized (57% solely for contraceptive purposes, 37% for medical reasons and 6% for both). About 250,000 Canadian women were also sterile for natural reasons.
   Conversely, almost all men (93%) who underwent surgical sterilization did so for contraceptive reasons.
   Male sterility is less common, primarily because surgical sterilization for medical reasons is rare among men under the age of 50. Only 58,000 men living with a female partner aged 15 to 49 in 1995 had undergone sterilization for medical reasons.
   Family size is becoming uniform in Canada, and couples who want to ensure that they have only the number of children they planned appear to favour voluntary contraceptive sterilization.
   Sterilization has become much more common after the birth of the second child, with about 47% of couples with two children undergoing contraceptive sterilization in 1995, compared with only 14% of couples with one child.

[Should anyone be surprised at that?  It is a direct consequence of policies that put the right of the State and the individual over the obligations of the State and the individual toward the source of our future citizens, our families! --WHS]

The third child

   In the absence of immigration, it is essential that some women have a third child to maintain current population levels. This third child has become rare in Canada. Of the women born between 1927 and 1931, 60% had a third birth, but only 25% of those born between 1952 and 1956 did so. There are several important factors which are associated with having a third child. These factors include the interval between the first and the second birth (that is, the shorter the interval, the greater the probability of having a third child). A woman's age at the birth of the first child is also important (the younger the women, the greater the probability of having a third child. Another variable is church attendance (women who attend services every week are more likely than others to have a third child). On the other hand, labour market participation by women has a strong negative impact on the likelihood having three or more children.

[That is a fallacy.  Our population needs an average birth rate of 2.1 children for all women to maintain itself in the absence of any immigration.  At that rate we would still face the bulge of an elderly population that can't be maintained without an enormous effort by young income earners.  In the '50's there were 19 income earners for every retired person.  Today there are only three.  In the 2020 - 2030 time frame, when the Canadian population will begin to decline, there will be only two income earners for every retired person.  Add to that about a quarter of all all Canadian families with children (almost exclusively single-mother households) whose only income will be from social assistance.  The outcome will inevitably be an economic disaster of enormous proportions. --WHS]

Socio-economic condition of the elderly

   The aging of the Canadian population is not a recent development. Between 1950 and 1990, the 65-and-over age group grew more quickly than the total population, going from just over 1 million to 3.2 million. The latest projections show that this age group will triple again over the next 40 years, and, by 2030, persons aged 65 and over will represent 23% of the Canadian population.
   A study of the socio-economic conditions of senior citizens, based on data from the 1991 Census, shows that marital status (more than age or sex) plays a decisive role in the quality of life of persons over 60 years of age - to the advantage of married persons. The emergence of new family patterns resulting from divorce and low fertility is already having major effects on the independence of aging persons, and these effects are likely to increase over time.
   At present, seniors tend to live independently of their children. Therefore, as life expectancy increases, more generations will co-exist in the family line but not necessarily live together. The lives of men and women are quite different in old age. Half of women aged 75 and over live alone, compared with only one man in five. At age 75, 60% of men live with a spouse, whereas only 10% of women have a life companion.

[The fact presented in the last sentence in that paragraph is entirely due to the lower average life expectancy of men.  That lower life expectancy is not due to any biological characteristics of men and women.  It is entirely due to the fact that men work far greater number of hours and work the dangerous, dirty and unhealthy jobs to a far greater extent than women do.  It is interesting, though, to observe the tendency of StatCan (largely permeated and controlled by feminists) to present that fact as a handicap afflicting women, even though the result of the widely differing life expectancies of the sexes is the sum total of massive discrimination against men.
   StatCan also fails to identify that elderly women, even if they became divorced, generally have close ties to their children and often receive physical, emotional and financial support from their children, while the mortality of divorced elderly men is further aggravated because they have no or at best only weak ties with their children.  That is due to discriminatory divorce decisions that award child custody almost exclusively to women and condemn men to a life-time of poverty due to having to pay massive and often excessive child support amounts for children whom they in the majority of cases never get to see anymore. WHS
]

   However, living alone does not automatically mean an elderly women will live in poverty. Many women can draw on income sources from a deceased or ex-husband, and at age 65 they begin receiving old age security. In 1991, the majority of elderly men had access to two sources of income (Old Age Security and benefits under the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan). Conversely, only half of the women over the age of 65 had access to these sources of income due to their absence from the labour market during their adult life, which automatically excluded them from pension plans. The women most likely to be financially insecure are those who at the same time do not have a spouse, have never been in the labour market and are not yet collecting Old Age Security benefits (under 65 years of age).

[The reality behind that is that men make 70 percent of social safety net contributions, while women receive 70 of all benefits paid out.  In addition, the American Federal Reserve Banks identified that just about exactly 70 percent of all corporate equity is owned by women. WHS]

   Elderly persons with very low incomes tend to live in large households. This enables them to benefit from the incomes of other household members and cut living costs. On the other hand, never married women generally live alone. More often than the others, women have three sources of income, making them the most independent seniors.
   In general, the financial status of senior citizens has improved since the end of World War II, and that trend is continuing. Adult women are increasingly present in the labour market, where they are laying the groundwork for retirement. Moreover, like men, they are increasingly educated, and studies show that those with the most education are the last to stop working.
Report on the demographic situation in Canada 1997 (91-209-XPE, $31) is now available. See How to order publications.
   For further information, contact Alain Blanger (613-951-2326) or Jean Dumas (613-951-2327), Research and Analysis Section, Demography Division.

[That brings to mind the fourth commandment:   "Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee."  Did anyone ever wonder why it is the only one of the Ten Commandments that contains a promise?  Read the preceding section on "Socio-economic condition of the elderly" once more and read it carefully.  It will become perfectly clear.  Without strong, healthy and loving families in the coming decades, nobody who isn't living in one will have anything good to look forward to.  Re-establish society's respect for our families and support the concept of the family once more through family-friendly government policies, that will solve the problems indicated in this release by StatCan.  It needs to be done right now, unless we want our children to live in abject misery in the decades to come.

Our families, as they were for thousands of years, are the most efficient and effective social support structure imaginable.  Any society that wants to live well better not forget that.  No government, even with the best intentions, can possibly be a substitute for families that comes even close in effectiveness.  If we are smart, we'll stop destroying our families and instead promote good old-fashioned family traditions again.  It will be the best solution possible.  It always was.  WHS]

An article in the May 11,1998 issue of the Alberta Report looks at some of the concerns that families have with their elderly members.

Coming Home -- With warehousing and welfare for the elderly threatening to bankrupt us, baby boomers and their parents are now re-inventing the extended family.

[Update 1998 07 10: The cover story in the July 13, 1998 issue of the Alberta Report is "Canadian Sunset Old tired and cranky: A StatCan study reveals a nation bound for decrepitude"  The URL for the Alberta Report is http://www.albertareport.com; unfortunately the Alberta Report ceased to be published and its website no longer exists. WHS]  

---<StatCan article continues>---
Legal aid expenditures and caseload statistics 1996/97

Legal aid expenditures dropped 14% to $536.1 million in 1996/97. Expressed in per capita terms, legal aid spending decreased $3.10 per Canadian to $17.90 in 1996/97 - the lowest per capita spending since 1990/91. This was the second consecutive year that legal aid spending fell, ending a period of rising expenditures from 1986/87 to 1994/95 (with the exception of a slight decline in 1993/94).
   The decrease in total expenditures for 1996/97 was a result of reduced spending in Newfoundland (-3%), Nova Scotia (-4%), Quebec (-5%), Ontario (-24%), British Columbia (-5%), the Northwest Territories (-6%), and the Yukon (-19%).  Ontario registered the largest decrease ($77.0 million) due to reduced provincial funding that is now capped until 1998/99.
   More than half (57%) of direct legal aid expenditures were for civil legal matters. The allocation of revenues to criminal versus civil matters varies considerably. For example, spending on criminal versus civil cases is essentially equal in Nova Scotia, whereas 67% of expenditures are allocated to civil cases in Quebec (the remaining 33% go to criminal cases). The priorities placed on the type of case have implications for who receive legal aid.
   Of the $465.1 million spent on direct legal services in 1996/97, about two-thirds ($318.3 million) was paid to private lawyers, down 21% from the previous year. The other third ($146.9 million) went to salaried lawyers of the legal aid plans. The overall figures mask very different patterns in the jurisdictions. Staff lawyers are almost always used in Newfoundland and Saskatchewan, whereas the private bar handles the majority of the legal aid cases in New Brunswick, Ontario and Alberta.
   The demand for legal aid in Canada can be measured, in part, by the number of applications that the provinces and territories receive. In 1996/97, 824,451 written applications were submitted for legal assistance, down 15% compared with 1995/96. Between 1986/87 and 1992/93, the number of applications submitted to legal aid plans in Canada had been steadily increasing until 1993/94 when a downward trend began.
   In 1996/97, 21% fewer applications were approved, totalling 510,914. This number marks a four-year downward trend in approval numbers and rates. Overall, slightly less than two-thirds (62%) of total legal aid applications were approved.
   The annual report, Legal aid in Canada: Resource and caseload statistics, 1996/97 (85F0015XPB, Canada: $33) and Juristat: Legal aid in Canada : 1996/97, Vol. 18, no. 10 (85-002-XPE, $10/$93; 85-002-XIE, $8/$70) are now available.  These reports present data on revenues, expenditures, caseload and personnel involved in the delivery of legal aid services in Canada. See How to order publications.
   For further information on this release, contact the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (613-951-9023 or 1 800 387-2231).

[Note that the reductions in expenditures for Legal Aid didn't occur because there was less demand.  The availability of Legal Aid depends on funding made available for it.  There have been funding cuts, therefore there is now less spending on Legal Aid.   That will probably be a blessing for fathers seeking justice in the courts.  They'll not as often face opponents who have unlimited funding to sustain the battle.  WHS]

_________________
There is a great need  to promote IMD (International Men's Day) to raise awareness, largely even amongst men, about systemic discrimination against men: A YouTube video about discrimination against men (off-site)


The following is a link to the concerns about the preceding StatCan release expressed by the Alberta Report

 Canadian Sunset -- The fertile shall inherit the earth  COVER

  • GOLDEN YEARS
    Beset by a greying population and plummeting birthrate, a new report says Canada is in decline

    "Like that of the rest of the industrialized world, Canada's population is aging, and fewer families are having fewer children. The result is a strained healthcare system and Canada Pension Plan, which exacerbates regional tensions. Attempts to compensate by allowing more immigration merely spark fears of ethnic balkanization."

    "This decline in fertility is happening throughout the developed world," says American Enterprise Institute demographer Ben Wattenberg, Washington, D.C.-based author of the 1987 book The Birth Dearth. "It's standard with modernization." Countries unaccustomed to immigration like Japan and Italy are in pitiful shape, he recounts.  Japan, with a 1.5 TFR [Total Fertility Rate], will lose a third of its population in the next century; Italy, with a 1.2 TFR, will lose half." (See also Parents' rights a demographic issue, by COLIN P.A. JONES, Special to The Japan Times, Tuesday, July 18, 2006)

_______________

Current total fertility rates (TFRs) for countries in the world - Rank Order.  The web page accessible through the preceding link lists the rank order from highest to lowest, with a TFR of about 2.2 indicating a stable population. The TFR required to maintain a given country's population varies a little from country to country, depending on the life expectancy for the average resident in that country. (Source: CIA World Factbook)

As of June 2008, the CIA World Factbook showed 104 countries (generally the richest and most developed) to have TFRs of less than 2.2.  In other words, in those countries the population is in the process of shrinking. (Related Articles at Fathers for Life)


If you have concerns about these and other issues related to the condition of seniors, visit, contact and perhaps even join:

SUN Seniors United Now

The up- and coming, rapidly-growing advocacy organization for seniors (55 years and over) in Alberta

There are in the order of about half a million or more people of age 55 and over in Alberta. If all of them were to join SUN, they would become the most powerful advocacy organization in Alberta; and seniors would no longer be robbed of their comforts and otherwise ignored.
   At the price of one package of cigarettes seniors will be able to gain a voice that will be heard by a government that otherwise can and will take from seniors what they worked for all their life to enjoy in their old age.

If you are concerned about how seniors are affected by the planned, systematic destruction of our families and society, a search at google.com (for elderly OR seniors OR grandparent OR grandfather OR grandmother site:http://fathersforlife.org) will provide you with the links to about 84 web pages at Fathers for Life that will be of interest to you.

See also:

Feminism For Male College Students A Short Guide to the Truth, by Angry Harry (Off-Site)

White RoseThe White Rose
Thoughts are Free

__________
Last updated:
1999 06 04
2001 01 29 (format changes)
2001 12 29 (inserted comment about Elder Abuse)
2002 10 20 (inserted reference to St. Louis Post-Dispatch series of articles on the killing of elderly in US nursing homes)
2004 06 24 (added entry for SUN Seniors United Now)
2006 03 04 (added link to Feminism for Male College Students)
2011 11 21 (added links to information on IMD)