On 18 December 1979, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women was
adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. It entered into force as an international treaty on 3 September 1981
after the twentieth country had ratified it. By the tenth anniversary of the Convention in 1989, almost one hundred
nations have agreed to be bound by its provisions.
The Convention was the culmination of more than thirty years of work by the United Nations Commission on the
Status of Women, a body established in 1946 to monitor the situation of women and to promote women's rights. The
Commission's work has been instrumental in bringing to light all the areas in which women are denied equality with
men. These efforts for the advancement of women have resulted in several declarations and conventions, of which the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is the central and most comprehensive
Among the international human rights treaties, the Convention takes an important place in bringing the female
half of humanity into the focus of human rights concerns. The spirit of the Convention is rooted in the goals of the
United Nations: to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the
human person, in the equal rights of men and women. The present document spells out the meaning of
equality and how it can be achieved. In so doing, the Convention establishes not only an international bill of
rights for women, but also an agenda for action by countries to guarantee the enjoyment. of those rights.
In its preamble, the Convention explicitly acknowledges that "extensive discrimination against women continues to
exist", and emphasizes that such discrimination "violates the principles of equality of rights and respect for human
dignity". As defined in article 1, discrimination is understood as "any distinction, exclusion or restriction made
on the basis of sex... in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field". The Convention gives
positive affirmation to the principle of equality by requiring States parties to take "all appropriate measures,
including legislation, to ensure the full development and advancement of women, for the purpose of guaranteeing them
the exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms on a basis of equality with men" (article 3).
The agenda for equality is specified in fourteen subsequent articles. In its approach, the Convention covers
three dimensions of the situation of women. Civil rights and the legal status of women are dealt with in great
detail. In addition, and unlike other human rights treaties, the Convention is also concerned with the dimension
of human reproduction as well as with the impact of cultural factors on gender
The legal status of women receives the broadest attention. Concern over the basic rights of political
participation has not diminished since the adoption of the Convention on the Political Rights of Women in 1952. Its
provisions, therefore, are restated in article 7 of the present document, whereby women are guaranteed the rights to
vote, to hold public office and to exercise public functions. This includes equal rights for women to represent
their countries at the international level (article 8). The Convention on the Nationality of Married Women-adopted
in 1957-is integrated under article 9 providing for the statehood of women, irrespective of their marital status.
The Convention, thereby, draws attention to the fact that often women's legal status has been linked to marriage,
making them dependent on their husband's nationality rather then individuals in their own right. Articles 10, 11 and
13, respectively, affirm women's rights to non-discrimination in Education, employment and economic and social
activities. These demands are given special emphasis with regard to the situation of rural women, whose particular
struggles and vital economic contributions, as noted in article 14, warrant more attention in policy planning.
Article 15 asserts the full equality of women in civil and business matters, demanding that all instruments directed
at restricting women's legal capacity "shall be deemed null and void". Finally, in article 16, the Convention
returns to the issue of marriage and family relations, asserting the equal rights and obligations of women and men
with regard to choice of spouse, parenthood, personal rights and command over property.
Aside from civil rights issues, the Convention also devotes major attention to a most vital concern of women,
namely their reproductive rights. The preamble sets the tone by stating that "the role of women in procreation
should not be a basis for discrimination". The link between discrimination and women's reproductive role is a matter
of recurrent concern in the Convention. For example, it advocates, in article 5, "a proper understanding of
maternity as a social function , demanding fully shared responsibility for child-rearing by both sexes. Accordingly,
provisions for maternity protection and child-care are proclaimed as essential rights and are incorporated into all
areas of the Convention, whether dealing with employment, family low, health care or education. Society's obligation
extends to offering social services, especially child-care facilities, that allow individuals to combine family
responsibilities with work and participation in public life. Special measures for maternity protection are
recommended and "shall not be considered discriminatory". (Article 4). "The Convention also affirms women's right to
reproductive choice. Notably, it is the only human rights treaty to mention family planning. States parties are
obliged to include advice on family planning in the education process (article 10.h) and to develop family codes
that guarantee women's rights "to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to
have access to the information, education and means to enable them to exercise these rights" (article 16.e).
The third general thrust of the Convention aims at enlarging our understanding of the concept of human rights, as
it gives formal recognition to the influence of culture and tradition on restricting women's enjoyment of their
fundamental rights. These forces take shape in stereotypes, customs and norms which give rise to the multitude of
legal, political and economic constraints on the advancement of women. Noting this interrelationship, the preamble
of the. Convention stresses "that a change in the traditional role of men as well as the role of women in society
and in the family is needed to achieve full equality of men and women". States parties are therefore obliged to work
towards the modification of social and cultural patterns of individual conduct in order to eliminate "prejudices and
customary and all other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the
sexes or on stereotyped roles for men and women" (article 5). And Article 1O.c. mandates the revision of textbooks,
school programs and teaching methods with a view to eliminating stereotyped concepts in the field of education.
Finally, cultural patterns which define the public realm as a man's world and the domestic sphere as women's domain
are strongly targeted in all of the Convention's provisions that affirm the equal responsibilities of both sexes in
family life and their equal rights with regard to education and employment. Altogether, the Convention provides a
comprehensive framework for challenging the various forces that have created and sustained discrimination based upon
The implementation of the Convention is monitored by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against
Women (CEDAW). The Committee's mandate and the administration of the treaty are defined in the Articles 17 to 30 of
the Convention. The Committee is composed of 23 experts nominated by their Governments and elected by the States
parties as individuals "of high moral standing and competence in the field covered by the Convention".
At least every four years, the States parties are expected to submit a national report to the Committee,
indicating the measures they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the Convention. During its annual
session, the Committee members discuss these reports with the Government representatives and explore with them areas
for further action by the specific country. The Committee also makes general recommendations to the States parties
on matters concerning the elimination of discrimination against women.
The full text of the Convention is set out in the pages that follow.
CONVENTION ON THE ELIMINATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN
The States Parties to the present Convention,
Noting that the Charter of the United Nations reaffirms faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity
and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women,
Noting that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms the principle of the inadmissibility of
discrimination and proclaims that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone
is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, including distinction
based on sex,
Noting that the States Parties to the International Covenants on Human Rights have the obligation to
ensure the equal right of men and women to enjoy all economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights,
Considering the international conventions concluded under the auspices of the United Nations and the
specialized agencies promoting equality of rights of men and women,
Noting also the resolutions, declarations and recommendations adopted by the United Nations and the
specialized agencies promoting equality of rights of men and women,
Concerned, however, that despite these various instruments extensive discrimination against women
continues to exist,
Recalling that discrimination against women violates the principles of equality of rights and respect for
human dignity, is an obstacle to the participation of women, on equal terms with men, in the political, social,
economic and cultural life of their countries, hampers the growth of the prosperity of society and the family and
makes more difficult the full development of the potentialities of women in the service of their countries and of
Concerned that in situations of poverty women have the least access to food, health, education, training
and opportunities for employment and other needs,
Convinced that the establishment of the new international economic order based on equity and justice will
contribute significantly towards the promotion of equality between men and women,
Emphasizing that the eradication of apartheid, of all forms of racism, racial discrimination,
colonialism, neocolonialism, aggression, foreign occupation and domination and interference in the internal affairs
of States is essential to the full enjoyment of the rights of men and women,
Affirming that the strengthening of international peace and security, relaxation of ' international
tension, mutual co-operation among all States irrespective of their social and economic systems, general and
complete disarmament, and in particular nuclear disarmament under strict and effective international control, the
affirmation of the principles of justice, equality and mutual benefit in relations among countries and the
realization of the right of peoples under alien and colonial domination and foreign occupation to self-determination
and independence, as well as respect for national sovereignty and territorial integrity, will promote social
progress and development and as a consequence will contribute to the attainment of full equality between men and
Convinced that the full and complete development of a country, the welfare of the world and the cause of
peace require the maximum participation of women on equal terms with men in all fields,
Bearing in mind the great contribution of women to the welfare of the family and to the development of
society, so far not fully recognized, the social significance of maternity and the role of both parents in the
family and in the upbringing of children, and aware that the role of women in procreation should not be a basis for
discrimination but that the upbringing of children requires a sharing of responsibility between men and women and
society as a whole,
Aware that a change in the traditional role of men as well as the role of women in society and in the
family is needed to achieve full equality between men and women,
Determined to implement the principles set forth in the Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination
against Women and, for that purpose, to adopt the measures required for the elimination of such discrimination in
all its forms and manifestations,
Have agreed on the following:
For the purposes of the present Convention, the term "discrimination against women" shall mean any distinction,
exclusion or restriction mode on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the
recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and
women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other
States Parties condemn discrimination against women in all its forms, agree to pursue by oil appropriate means
and without delay a policy of eliminating discrimination against women and, to this end, undertake:
(a) To embody the principle of the equality of men and women in their notional
constitutions or other appropriate legislation if not yet incorporated therein and to ensure, through low and
other appropriate means, the practical realization of this principle;
(b) To adopt appropriate legislative and other measures, including sanctions
where appropriate, prohibiting all discrimination against women;
(c) To establish legal protection of the rights of women on an equal basis with
men and to ensure through competent notional tribunals and other public institutions the effective protection of
women against any act of discrimination;
(d) To refrain from engaging in any act or practice of discrimination against
women and to ensure that public authorities and institutions shall act in conformity with this obligation;
(e) To take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women
by any person, organization or enterprise;
(f) To take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or
abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women;
(g) To repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination
States Parties shall take in all fields, in particular in the political, social, economic and cultural fields,
all appropriate measures, including legislation, to ensure the full development and advancement of women, for the
purpose of guaranteeing them the exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms on a basis of
equality with men.
1. Adoption by States Parties of temporary special measures aimed at
accelerating de facto equality between men and women shall not be considered discrimination as defined in the
present Convention, but shall in no way entail as a consequence the maintenance of unequal or separate standards;
these measures shall be discontinued when the objectives of equality of opportunity and treatment have been
2. Adoption by States Parties of special measures, including those measures
contained in the present Convention, aimed at protecting maternity shall not be considered discriminatory.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures:
(a) To modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women,
with a view to achieving the elimination of prejudices and customary and all other practices which are based on
the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes or on stereotyped roles for men and women;
(b) To ensure that family education includes a proper understanding of
maternity as a social function and the recognition of the common responsibility of men and women in the upbringing
and development of their children, it being understood that the interest of the children is the primordial
consideration in all cases.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of
traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and
public life of the country and, in particular, shall ensure to women, on equal terms with men, the right:
(a) To vote in all elections and public referenda and to be eligible for
election to all publicly elected bodies;
(b) To participate in the formulation of government policy and the
implementation thereof and to hold public office and perform all public functions at all levels of government;
(c) To participate in non-governmental organizations and associations concerned
with the public and political life of the country.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure to women, on equal terms with men and without any
discrimination, the opportunity to represent their Governments at the international level and to participate in the
work of international organizations.
1. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men to acquire, change or
retain their nationality. They shall ensure in particular that neither marriage to an alien nor change of
nationality by the husband during marriage shall automatically change the nationality of the wife, render her
stateless or force upon her the nationality of the husband.
2. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men with
respect to the nationality of their children.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in order to ensure
to them equal rights with men in the field of education and in particular to ensure, on a basis of equality of men
(a) The same conditions for career and vocational guidance, for access to
studies and for the achievement of diplomas in educational establishments of all categories in rural as well as in
urban areas; this equality shall be ensured in pre-school, general, technical, professional and higher technical
education, as well as in all types of vocational training;
(b) Access to the some curricula, the some examinations, teaching staff with
qualifications of the same standard and school premises and equipment of the some quality;
(c) The elimination of any stereotyped concept of the roles of men and women
at all levels and in all forms of education by encouraging coeducation and other types of education which will
help to achieve this aim and, in particular, by the revision of textbooks and school programs and the adaptation
of teaching methods;
(d) The same opportunities to benefit from scholarships and other study
(e) The same opportunities for access to programmes of continuing education,
including adult and functional literacy programmes, particularly those aimed at reducing, at the earliest possible
time, any gap in education existing between men and women;
(f) The reduction of female student drop-out rates and the organization of
programmes for girls and women who have left school prematurely;
(g) The some opportunities to participate actively in sports and physical
(h) Access to specific educational information to help to ensure the health
and well-being of families, including information and advice on family planning.
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate
discrimination against women in the field of employment in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women,
the some rights, in particular:
(a) The right to work as an inalienable right of all human beings;
(b) The right to the same employment opportunities, including the
application of the some criteria for selection in matters of employment;
(c) The right to free choice of profession and employment, the right to
promotion, job security and all benefits and conditions of service and the right to receive vocational training
and retraining, including apprenticeships, advanced vocational training and recurrent training;
(d) The right to equal renumeration, including benefits, and to equal
treatment in respect of work of equal value, as well as equality of treatment in the evaluation of the quality of
(e) The right to social security, particularly in cases of retirement,
unemployment, sickness, invalidity and old age and other incapacity to work, as well as the right to paid leave;
(f) The right to protection of health and to safety in working conditions,
including the safeguarding of the function of reproduction.
2. In order to prevent discrimination against women on the grounds of marriage
or maternity and to ensure their effective right to work, States Parties shall take appropriate measures:
(a) To prohibit, subject to the imposition of sanctions, dismissal on the
grounds of pregnancy or of maternity leave and discrimination in dismissals on the basis of marital status;
(b) To introduce maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits
without loss of former employment, seniority or social allowances;
(c) To encourage the provision of the necessary supporting social services
to enable parents to combine family obligations with work responsibilities and participation in public life, in
particular through promoting the establishment and development of a network of child-care facilities;
(d) To provide special protection to women during pregnancy in types of work
proved to be harmful to them.
3. Protective legislation relating to matters covered in this article shall be
reviewed periodically in the light of scientific and technological knowledge and shall be revised, repealed or
extended as necessary.
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate
discrimination against women in the field of health care in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and
women, access to health care services, including those related to family planning.
2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article, States
Parties shall ensure to women appropriate services in connection with pregnancy, confinement and the post-natal
period, granting free services where necessary, as well as adequate nutrition during pregnancy and lactation.
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate
discrimination against women in other areas of economic and social life in order to ensure, on a basis of equality
of men and women, the some rights, in particular:
(a) The right to family benefits;
(b) The right to bank loans, mortgages and other forms of financial credit;
(c) The right to participate in recreational activities, sports and all
aspects of cultural life.
1. States Parties shall take into account the particular problems faced by
rural women and the significant roles which rural women play in the economic survival of their families, including
their work in the non-monetized sectors of the economy, and shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the
application of the provisions of this Convention to women in rural areas.
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate
discrimination against women in rural areas in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, that they
participate in and benefit from rural development and, in particular, shall ensure to such women the right:
(a) To participate in the elaboration and implementation of development
planning at all levels;
(b) To have access to adequate health care facilities, including
information, counseling and services in family planning;
(c) To benefit directly from social security programmes;
(d) To obtain all types of training and education, formal and non-formal,
including that relating to functional literacy, as well as, inter alia, the benefit of all community and
extension services, in order to increase their technical proficiency;
(e) To organize self-help groups and co-operatives in order to obtain equal
access to economic opportunities through employment or self-employment;
(f)To participate in all community activities;
(g) To have access to agricultural credit and loans, marketing facilities,
appropriate technology and equal treatment in land and agrarian reform as well as in land resettlement schemes;
(h) To enjoy adequate living conditions, particularly in
relation to housing, sanitation, electricity and water supply, transport and communications.
1. States Parties shall accord to women equality with men before the law.
2. States Parties shall accord to women, in civil matters, a legal capacity
identical to that of men and the some opportunities to exercise that capacity. In particular, they shall give women
equal rights to conclude contracts and to administer property and shall treat them equally in all stages of
procedure in courts and tribunals.
3. States Parties agree that all contracts and all other private instruments of
any kind with a legal effect which is directed at restricting the legal capacity of women shall be deemed null and
4. States Parties shall accord to men and women the same rights with regard to
the law relating to the movement of persons and the freedom to choose their residence and domicile.
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate
discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations and in particular shall
ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:
(a) The same right to enter into marriage;
(b) The same right freely to choose spouse and to enter into marriage only
with their free and full consent;
(c) The same rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its
(d) The same rights and responsibilities as parents, irrespective of their
marital status, in matters relating to their children; in all cases the interests of the children shall be
(e) The same rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and
spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education and means to enable them to exercise
(f) The same rights and responsibilities with regard to guardianship,
wardship, trusteeship and adoption of children, or similar institutions where these concepts exist in national
legislation; in all cases the interests of the children shall be paramount;
(g) The same personal rights as husband and wife, including the right to
choosing a family name, a profession and an occupation;
(h) The same rights for both spouses in respect of the ownership,
acquisition, management, administration, enjoyment and disposition of property, whether free of charge or for a
2. The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal
effect, and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage and to
make the registration of marriages in an official registry compulsory.
1. For the purpose of considering the progress made in the implementation of
the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
(hereinafter referred to as the Committee) consisting, at the time of entry into force of the Convention, of
eighteen and, after ratification of or accession to the Convention by the thirty-fifth State Party, of twenty-three
experts of high moral standing and competence in the field covered by the Convention. The experts shall be elected
by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given
to equitable geographical distribution and to the representation of the different forms of civilization as well as
the principle legal systems.
2. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list
of persons nominated by States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals.
3. The initial election shall be held six months after the date of the entry
into force of the present Convention. At least three months before the date of each election the Secretary-General
of the United Nations shall address a letter to the States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within
two months. The Secretary-General shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated,
indicating the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties.
4. Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of
States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At that meeting, for which two
thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those nominees
who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States
Parties present and voting.
5. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years.
However, the terms of nine of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years;
immediately after the first election the names of these nine members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the
6. The election of the five additional members of the Committee shall be held
in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3, and 4 of this article, following the thirty-fifth ratification
or accession. The terms of two of the additional members elected on this occasion shall expire at the end of two
years, the names of these two members having been chosen by lot by the Chairman of the Committee.
7. For the filling of casual vacancies, the State Party whose expert has ceased
to function as a member of the Committee shall appoint another expert from among its nationals, subject to the
approval of the Committee.
8. The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the General
Assembly, receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the Assembly may decide,
having regard to the importance of the Committee's responsibilities.
9. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary
staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Convention.
1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Secretary-General of the United
Nations, for consideration by the Committee, a report on the legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures
which they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the present Convention and on the progress made in this
(a) Within a year after the entry into force for the State concerned; and
(b) Thereafter at least every four years and further whenever the Committee
2. Reports may indicate factors and difficulties affecting the degree of
fulfillment of obligations under the present Convention.
1. The Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure.
2. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years.
1. The Committee shall normally meet for a period of not more than two weeks
annually in order to consider the reports submitted in accordance with article 18 of the present Convention.
2. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations
Headquarters or at any other convenient place as determined by the Committee.
1. The Committee shall, through the Economic and Social Council, report
annually to the General Assembly of the United Nations on its activities and may make suggestions and general
recommendations based on the examination of reports and information received from the States Parties. Such
suggestions and general recommendations shall be included in the report of the Committee together with comments, if
any, from States Parties.
2. The Secretary-General shall transmit the reports of the Committee to the
Commission on the Status of Women for its information.
The specialized agencies shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the
implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their activities. The
Committee may invite the specialized agencies to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas
falling within the scope of their activities.
Nothing in this Convention shall affect any provisions that are more conducive to the achievement of equality
between men and women which may be contained:
(a) In the legislation of a State Party; or
(b) In any other international convention, treaty or agreement in force for
States Parties undertake to adopt all necessary measures at the national level aimed at achieving the full
realization of the rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Notions-is designated as the depositary
of the present Convention.
3. The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of
ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
4. The present Convention shall be open to accession by all States. Accession
shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
1. A request for the revision of the present Convention may be made at any time
by any State Party by means of a notification in writing addressed to the Secretary General of the United Nations.
2. The General Assembly of the United Nations shall decide upon the steps, if
any, to be taken in respect of such a request.
1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the
date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or
2. For each State ratifying the present Convention or acceding to it after the
deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the
thirtieth day after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or accession.
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to
all States the text of reservations made by States at the time of ratification or accession.
2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present
Convention shall not be permitted.
3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to this effect
addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States thereof. Such
notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received.
1. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation
or application of the present Convention which is not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of them,
be submitted to arbitration. If within six months from the date of the request for arbitration the parties are
unable to agree on the organization of the arbitration, any one of those parties may refer the dispute to the
International Court of Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of the Court.
2. Each State Party may at the time of signature or ratification of this
Convention or accession thereto declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of this article. The
other States Parties shall not be bound by that paragraph with respect to any State Party which has made such a
3. Any State Party which has made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 2
of this article may at any time withdraw that reservation by notification to the Secretary-General of the United
The present Convention, the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts of which are equally
authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Make sure that you read the related
Heritage Foundation's Backgrounder:
||February 5, 2001
HOW U.N. CONVENTIONS ON WOMEN'S AND CHILDREN'S RIGHTS UNDERMINE FAMILY, RELIGION, AND SOVEREIGNTY
PATRICK F. FAGAN
| Full Text | PDF (338k) |
Note: PDF version contains both the Executive Summary and the Full Text and is optimized for Adobe Acrobat 4.0.
And see also:
"Fix" That's Destroying Education In America
Have no illusions that the problems with America's education system are national ones.
Once you read Tom DeWeese's article and know who's behind "The Fix", you'll come
to the conclusion that you know also why "The Fix" is destroying education
in all developed nations. In addition, you'll know why the current push for sex-education is
such a large part of it. Full Story