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Dale's Web Pages ONE OUT OF TWO

AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases among men who have sex with men

Review of the literature, by Dale O'Leary

The material presented here was collected by members of the
National Association of Research and Therapy of Homosexuality, NARTH

Table of Contents


Sources are cited using the following format:

In the text (Author Date)

In the bibliography: Author, First Initial., Additional Author, First Initial. (Date of Publication) Title of Article, Name of Publication. Month or Volume, Issue: Pages.

Two publications by the same author in the same year are given letters (a) or (b) after the date of publication to distinguish them in the text and in the bibliography.

Books are cited in the text with the name of the author and the page number from which the citation comes. (Author page number)

Articles without acknowledged authors are referenced in the text by the first word in the title in parenthesis and the date ("Title" date) and listed at the end of the bibliography.

Altman, L. (1997) With AIDS Advance, More Disappointment. New York Times. Jan. 19.

Barone, J, Yee, J., Nealon, T. (1983) Management of Foreign Bodies and Trauma of the Rectum. Surgical Gynecology and Obstetrics. 156:453 - 457.

Bauman, L., Siegel, K. (1987) Misperception Among Gay Men of the Risk of AIDS Associated with their Sexual Behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 17, 3:329 - 350.

Bayer, R. (1996) AIDS Prevention -- Sexual Ethics and Responsibility. New England Journal of Medicine. June 6:1540 - 1542

Bell, A., Weinberg, M. (1978) Homosexualities: A Study in Diversity Among Men and Women. Simon & Schuster: New York.

Berger, R. (1977) Report on a Community Based Venereal Disease Clinic for Homosexual Men. The Journal of Sex Research. 13, 1:54 - 62.

Berger, R. (1990) Men Together: Understanding the Gay Couple. Journal of Homosexuality 19,3:31 - 49.

Boyles, S. (1995) Certain STDs Associated with Faster HIV Progression. AIDS Weekly. Sept. 25:13 - 14.

Bradley, S., Zucker, K. (1997) Gender Identity Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 36, 7: 872 - 880.

Burr, C. (1997) The AIDS Exception: Privacy vs. Public Health. The Atlantic Monthly. June. 57 - 67.

Carbone, G. (1997) To tell or not tell? HIV debate escalates. Providence Journal. Sept. 12: 1.

Cates, W., Hinman A. (1992) AIDS and Absolutism: the demand for perfection in prevention. New England Journal of Medicine. 327:492 - 494.

Cobb, J., Schecter, W., Russel, T. (1990) Giant Malignant Tumors of the Anus. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 33:135 - 138.

Coleman, J., Waugh, M., Dayton, R. (1977) Hepatitis B antigen and antibody in a male homosexual population. British Journal of Venereal Diseases. 54:132 - 134.

Collier, A., Meyers, J., Corey, L., Murphy. V., Roberts, P., Handsfield, H. (1987) Cytomegalovirus Infection in Homosexual Men: Relationship to Sexual Practices, Antibody to Human Immunodefiency Virus and Cell-mediated Immunity. The American Journal of Medicine. 82:593 - 600.

Corey, L., Holmes, K. (1980) Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis A in Homosexual Men. The New England Journal of Medicine. 302, 8:435 - 438.

Darrow, W., Barrett, D., Jay, K., Young, A. (1981) The Gay Report on Sexually Transmitted Diseases. American Journal of Public Health. 71, 9:1004 - 1011.

Dawson, J. Fitzpatrick, R., McLean, J., Hart, G., Boulton, M. (1991). The HIV Test and Sexual Behavior in a Sample of Homosexually Active Men. Social Science Medicine 32, 6:683 - 688.

Dawson, J., Fitzpatrick, R., Reeves, G., Boulton, M., McLean, J., Hart., G., Brookes, M. (1994) Awareness of sexual partners' HIV status as an influence upon high-risk sexual behavior among gay men. AIDS. 8:837 - 841.

de Wit, J., van den Hoek, J., Sandfort, T., van Griensven, G. (1993) Increase in Unprotected Anogenital Intercourse among Homosexual Men. American Journal of Public Health 83, 10:1451 - 1453.

de Wit, J., van Griensven, G. (1994) Time from safer to unsafe sexual behavior among homosexual men. AIDS 8:123 - 126.

Doll, L., Byers, R., Bolan, G., Douglas, J., Moss, P., Weller, P., Joy, D., Bartholow, B., Harrison, J. (1991) Homosexual Men Who Engage in High-Risk Sexual Behavior. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 18, 3:170 - 175.

Ellis, W., Murray-Lyon, I., Coleman, J., Evans, B., Fluker, J., Bull, J., Keeling, P., Simmons, P., Banatvala, J., Willcox, J., Thompson, R. (1979) Liver Disease among Homosexual Males. The Lancet. April 28: 903 - 904.

Fay, R., Turner, C., Klassen, A., Gagnon, J. (1989). Prevalence and Patterns of Same-Gender Sexual Contact Among Men. Science. 243:338 - 348.

Feldman, D. (1986) AIDS health promotion and clinically applied anthropology. The Social Dimensions of AIDS: Methods and Theory. Praeger: NY.

Fisher, D., DeLapp, T., Roggenbuck, R., Brause, J. (1992) Substance Use and Perceived AIDS Exposure Among Homosexual Men in Alaska. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 6, 3:168 - 174.

Fluker, J. (1976) A 10-year study of homosexually transmitted infection. British Journal of Venereal Diseases. 52:155 - 160.

Fluker, J. (1981) Homosexuality and sexually transmitted diseases. British Journal of Hospital Medicine. Sept:267 - 286.

Gayle, H. (1997) The AIDS Exception: Letters. The Atlantic Monthly. Sept.:10.

Goedert, J., Biggar, R., Winn, D., Greene (1984) Determinants of retrovirus (HTLV-III) antibody and immunodeficiency conditions in homosexual men. Lancet. 1: 711 - 716.

Goodell, S., Guinn, T., Mkrtichian, T., Schuffler, M., Holmes, K., Corey, L. (1983) Herpes Simplex Virus Proctitis in Homosexual Men. New England Journal of Medicine. 308:868 - 871.

Goldman, E. (1994) Psychological Factors Generate HIV Resurgence in Young Gay Men. Clinical Psychiatry News. Oct.

Greenberg, J. (1997) Panel Warns of Death Toll from Hepatitis. The Wall Street Journal. March 27.

Greenberg, S., Linder, S., Baxter, B., Faris, E., Marcus, D., Dreesman, G. (1984). Lymphocyte Subsets and Urinary Excretion of Cytomegalovirus Among Homosexual Men Attending a Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 150,3:330 - 333.

Handsfield, H. (1981) Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Homosexual Men. American Journal of Public Health. 71, 9:989 - 990.

Handsfield, H., Schwebke, J. (1990) Trends in Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Homosexually Active Men In Kings County, Washington 1980 - 1990. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 17,4:211 - 215.

Haverkos, H. (1988) Kaposi's Sarcoma and Nitrite Inhalants, Psychosocial, neuropsychiatric and substance abuse aspects of HIV. Raven Press: NY.

Heitz, D. (1997) Men Behaving Badly: The Return of Our Bad Habits. The Advocate. July 8.

Herdt, G., Boxer, A. (1993) Children of Horizons: How gay and lesbian teens are leading a new way out of the closet. Boston: Beacon Press.

Hessol, N., Lifson, A., O'Malley, P., Doll, L., Jaffe, H., Rutherford, G. (1989) Prevalence, Incidence and Progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Homosexual and Bisexual Men in Hepatitis B Vaccine Trials, 1978 - 1988. American Journal of Epidemiology. 130,6: 1167 - 75.

Hoover, D., Munoz, A., Carey, V., Chmiel, J., Taylor, J., Margolick, J., Kingsley, L., Vermund, S. (1991) Estimating the 1978 - 1990 and Future Spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Subgroups of Homosexual Men. American Journal of Epidemiology 134, 10: 1190 - 1205.

Hull, H., Bettinger, C., Gallaher, M., Keller, N., Wilson, J., Mertz, G. (1986) Comparison of HIV-Antibody Prevalence in Patients Consenting to and Declining HIV-Antibody Testing in an STD Clinic. Journal of American Medical Association. 260, 7: 935 - 938.

Jones, C., Choi, K., Thomas, P., et al (1987) Persistence in high risk sexual activity among homosexual in an area of low incidence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 14: 79 - 82.

Jones, E., Forrest, J. (1989) Contraceptive Failure in the United States: Revised Estimates from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth. Family Planning Perspectives. 21, 3: 103 - 109.

Jones, A., Stryker, J. (1993) The Social Impact of AIDS in the United States. Washington: National Academy Press.

Joseph, S. (1992) Dragon within the Gates: The Once and Future AIDS Epidemic. Carroll & Graf , NY.

Judson, F., Penley, K., Robinson, M., Smith, J. (1980) Comparative Prevalence Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Heterosexual and Homosexual Men. American Journal of Epidemiology. 112: 836 - 843.

Kalichman, S., Rompa, D. (1995) Sexually Coerced and Noncoerced Gay and Bisexual Men: Factors Relevant to Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection. Journal of Sex Research. 32, 1: 45 - 50.

Kaslow, R., Ostrow, D., Detels, R., Phair, J., Polk, F., Rinaldo, C. (1987) The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: Rationale, Organization and Selected Characteristics of Participants. American Journal of Epidemiology. 126, 2: 310 - 318.

Kazal, H., Sohn, N., Carrasco, J., Robilotti, J., Delaney, W. (1976) The Gay Bowel Syndrome: Clinico Pathologic Correlation in 260 Cases. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science. 6, 2: 184 - 192.

Keet, I., van Lent, N., Sandfort, T., Coutinho, R., Griensven, G., (1992) Orogenital sex and the transmission of HIV among homosexual men. Aids. 6: 223 - 226.

Kelen, G., Green, G., Purcell, R., Chan, D., Qaqish, B., Sivertson, K., Quinn, T. (1992) Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Emergency Department Patient. New England Journal of Medicine. 326, 21: 1399 - 1404.

Kelly, J., St. Lawrence, J. (1987) Letter to the Editor. The Lancet. Feb.7.

Kelly, J., St. Lawrence, J., Hood, H., Brasfield, T. (1989) Behavioral Intervention to Reduce AIDS Risk Activities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 57, 1: 60 - 67

Kelly, J., St. Lawrence, J., Brasfield, T., Stevenson., Y., Diaz, Y., Hauth, A. (1990a) AIDS Rick Behavior Patterns among Gay Men in Small Southern Cities. American Journal of Public Health. 80, 4: 416 - 418.

Kelly, J., St. Lawrence, J., Brasfield, T., Lemke, A., Anndei, T., Roffman, R, Hood, H., Smith, J., Kilgore, H., McNeill, C. (1990b) Psychological Factors That Predict AIDS High-Rick Versus AIDS Precautionary Behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 58, 1: 117 - 120.

Kelly, J., Kalichman, S., Kauth, M., Kilgore, H., Hood., H., Campos, P., Rao, S., Brasfield, T., Lawrence, J. (1991a) Situational Factors Associated with AIDS Risk Behavior Lapses and Coping Strategies Used by Gay Men Who Successfully Avoid Lapses. American Journal of Public Health. 81, 10: 1335 - 1338.

Kelly, J., St. Lawrence, J., Brasfield, T. (1991b) Predictors of Vulnerability to AIDS Risk Behavior Relapse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 59, 1: 163 - 166.

Kelly, J., Murphy, D., et al (1992) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV Risk Behavior Among Gay Men in Small Cities. Archives of Internal Medicine. 152: 2293 - 2297.

Kelly, J., Sikkema, K., Solomon, L., Heckman, T., Stevenson, L., Norman, A., Winett, R., Roffman, R., Perry, M., Desiderato, L. (1995) Factors Predicting Continued High-Risk Behavior Among Gay Men in Small Cities: Psychological, Behavioral, and Demographic Characteristics Related to Unsafe Sex. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 63. 1: 101 - 107.

Ketterer, W. (1983). Roundtable: Medical Problems of Homosexuals. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 17, 10: 55 - 81.

Kingsley, A., Abcarian, H. (1985) Colorectal Foreign Bodies: Management Update. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 28: 941 - 944.

Kingsley, L., Kaslow, R., Rinaldo, C., Detre, K., (1987) Risk factors for seroconversion to human immunodeficiency virus among homosexual men. Lancet. 1: 345 - 348.

Kingsley, L., Rinaldo, C., Lyter, D., Valdiserri, R., Belle, S., Ho, M. (1990) Sexual Transmission Efficiency of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Homosexual Men. Journal of American Medical Association. 264: 230 - 234.

Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., Martin, C. (1949) Sexual Behavior of the Human Male. Philadelphia: Sounders.

Kirk, M., Madsen, H. (1990) After the Ball. New York: Plume.

Landers, A. (1997) Forget suicide, get help with self-acceptance. Providence Journal, May 23.

Lane, H., Holmber, S., Jaffe, H. (1991) HIV seroconversion and oral intercourse. American Journal of Public Health. 81:658. (referenced in Keet)

Lemp, G., Hirozawa, A., Givertz, D., Nieri, G., Anderson, L., Linegren, M., Janssen, R., Katx, M. (1994) Seroprevalence of HIV and Risk Behaviors Among Young Homosexual and Bisexual Men. Journal of the American Medical Association. 272, 6: 449:454.

Lemp, G., Jones, M., Kellogg, T., Nieri, G., Anderson, L., Withum, D., Katz, M. (1995) HIV Seroprevalence and Risk Behaviors among Lesbians and Bisexual Women in San Francisco and Berkeley, California. American Journal of Public Health. 85, 11: 1549 - 1552.

Lifson, R., O'Malley, P., Hessol, N. et al. (1990) HIV Seroconversion in two homosexual men after receptive oral intercourse with ejaculation: implications for counseling concerning safe sexual practices. American Journal of Public Health. 80: 1509 - 1511.(referenced by Keet)

Linn, L. et al (1989) Recent Sexual Behaviors Among Homosexual Men Seeking Primary Medical Care Archives of Internal Medicine. 149: 2695

Little, S. (1999) The spectrum and frequency of reduced antiretroviral drug susceptibility with primary HIV infection in the United States. Abstracts of the 6th Conference on Retroviruses and AIDS. (abstract only) AIDS

Markell, E., Haven, R., Kuritsubo, R. (1983) Intestinal Parasitic Infection In Homosexual Men at a San Francisco Health Fair. Western Journal of Medicine. 139: 177 - 178.

Martin, J., Hasin, D. (1991) Drinking, alcoholism, and sexual behavior in a cohort of gay men.( in AIDS and Alcohol/Drug Abuse: Psychosocial Research.  NY: Haworth ) 49 - 67.

Martin, J., Vance, C. (1984) Behavioral and psychological factors in AIDS: methodological and substantive issues. American Psychology. 39: 1303 - 1308 (quoted by Saltzman).

Martin, J. (1987) The impact of AIDS on gay male behavior patterns in New York City. American Journal of Public Health. 77: 578 - 584.

Maugh, T. (1998) Transmission of drug resistant HIV Reported. Los Angeles Times. July 1.

McGrath et al.(1995) Identification of a Clonal Form of HIV in Early Kaposi's Sarcoma: Evidence for a Novel Model of Oncogenesis, Sequential Neoplasia. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology. 8, 4: 379 - 85.

McLean, J., Boulton, M., Brookes, M, Lakhani, D., Fitzpatrick, R., Dawson, J., McKechnie, R. (1994) Regular Partners and Risky Behavior: Why do Gay Men have Unprotected Intercourse? AIDS Care. Summer.

McWhirter, D., Mattison, A. (1984) Male Couple: How Relationships Develop. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Melani, D. (1997) Hepatitis C comes out of the closet. Providence Journal. March, 20.

Meyer-Bahlburg, H., Exner, T., Lorenz, G., Gruen, R., Gorman, J., Ehrhardt, A. (1991) Sexual Risk Behavior, Sexual Functioning, and HIV-Disease Progression in Gay Men. Journal of Sex Research. 28, 1: 3 - 27.

Mintz, L. (1983) Cytomegalovirus infections in homosexual men: An epidemiological study.  Annals of Internal Medicine.  99: 326 - 329.STDS.

Morris, M., Dean, L. (1994) Effects of Sexual Behavior Change on Long-Term Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence among Homosexual Men. American Journal of Epidemiology. 140, 3: 217 - 32.

Moss, A., Osmond, D., Bacchetti, P., Chermann, J., Barre-Sinoussi, F., Carlson, J. (1987) Risk Factors for AIDS and HIV seropositivity in homosexual men. American Journal of Epidemiology. 125, 6: 1035 - 1047.

Mulry, G., Kalichman, S., Kelly, J. (1994) Substance use and unsafe sex among gay men: Global verse situational use of substances. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy. 20, 3: 175 - 184.

Murray, A., Greenhouse, P., Nelson, W., Norman, J., Jefferies, D., Anderson, J. (1991) Coincident acquisition of Neisseria gonorrheae and HIV from fellatio. Lancet. ii: 830 (reference by Keet).

Myers, T., Tudiver, F., Kurtz, R., Jackson, E., Orr, K., Rowe., C., Bullock, S. (1992a). The Talking Sex Project: Descriptions of the Study Populations and Correlates of Sexual Practices at Baseline. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 83, 1: 47 - 52.

Myers, T., Rowe, C., Tudiever, F., Kurtz, R., Jackson, E., Orr, K., Bullock, S. (1992b) HIV Substance Use and Related Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: An Examination of the Talking Sex Project Cohort. British Journal of Addiction. 87: 201 - 214.

Myers, T., Godin, G., Calzavara, L., Lambert, J., Locker, D. (1993) The Canadian Survey of Gay and Bisexual Men and HIV Infection: men's survey. Canadian AIDS Society: Ottawa.

Myers, T., Godin, G., Lambert, J., Calzavara, L., Locker, D. (1996) Sexual Risk and HIV-Testing Behavior by Gay and Bisexual Men in Canada. AIDS Care. June.

Newman, L. (1976) Treatment for the Parents of Feminine Boys. America Journal of Psychiatry. 133, 6: 683 - 687.

Nicolosi, J. (1991) Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality. NJ: Aronson.

Nieves, E. (1999) San Francisco again debates bathhouses. New York Times. May 29.

Odets, W. (1994) AIDS Education and Harm Reduction for Gay Men: Psychological Approaches for the 21st Century. AIDS & Public Policy Journal. 9, 1: 1 - 15.

Odets, W. (1995) In the Shadow of the Epidemic. Durham: Duke University Press.

Osmond, D., Page, K., Wiley, J., Garrett, K., Sheppard, H., Moss, A., Schrager, K., Winkelstein, W. (1994) HIV Infection in Homosexual and Bisexual Men 18 to 29 years of age: The San Francisco Young Men's Health Study. American Journal of Public Health. 84, 12: 1933 - 1937.

Ostrow, D., Altman, N. (1983) Sexually Transmitted Disease and Homosexuality. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Oct. Nov.: 208 - 215.

Ostrow, D. G., Emmons, C.A., O'Brien, K., et al. (1986) Magnitude and predictors of behavioral risk reduction in a cohort of homosexual men. (Paper presented at the International Conference on AIDS, Paris) June. (referenced in Fisher)

Ostrow, D., Beltran, E., Joseph, J. (1994) Sexual Behavior Research on a Cohort of Gay Men, 1984 - 1990: Can We Predict How Men Will Respond to Interventions? Archives of Sexual Behavior. 23, 5: 531 - 551.

Prieur, A. (1990) Norwegian Gay Men: Reasons for Continued Practice of Unsafe Sex. AIDS Education and Prevention. 2, 2: 109 - 115

Remafedi, G. (1994) Predictors of unprotected intercourse among gay and bisexual youth: knowledge, beliefs, and behavior. Pediatrics. 94 : 163 - 168.

Research and Decisions Corporation. (1986) Designing an Effective AIDS Prevention Campaign Strategy for San Francisco: Results from the Third Probability Sample of an Urban Gay Male Community. San Francisco: San Francisco AIDS Foundation.

Ridzon, R., Gallagher, K., Ciesielske, C., Maost, E., Robertson, B., Sinha, S., Demaria, A. (1996) Simultaneous transmission of both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). AIDS Weekly Plus. June 24: 25.

Rompalo, A. (1990). Sexually Transmitted Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Homosexual Men. Medical Clinics of North America. 74 ,6: 1633 - 1645.

Rozenbaum, W., Gharakhanian, S., Cardon, B., Duval, E., Couland, J. (1988) HIV transmission by oral sex. Lancet. i:1395 ( reference by Keet).

Rotello, G. (1997). Sexual Ecology: AIDS and the Destiny of Gay Men. NY: Dutton.

Sack, K.  (1999) For Gay Men, HIV Peril and Rising Drug Use. New York
Times. Jan. 29.

St. Lawrence, J., Hood, H., Brasfield, T., Kelly, J. (1989) Differences in Gay Men's Aids Risk Knowledge and Behavior Patterns in High and Low AIDS Prevalence Cities. Public Health Reports. 104,4:391 - 395

Saltzman, S., Stoddard, A., McCusker, J., Moon, M., Mayer, K, (1987) Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Behavior Risk Factors for HIV Infection in Homosexual Men. Public Health Reports 102, 6: 692 - 697.

Satinover, J. (1996) Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth. Grand Rapids: Baker Books.

Seage, G., Mayer, K., Horsburgh, C., Holmberg, S., Moon, M., Lamb, G. (1992) The Relation between Nitrite Inhalants, Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse, and the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. American Journal of Epidemiology. 135, 1: 1 - 11.

Shilts, R. (1987) And the Band Played On. NY: St. Martins Press.

Siegel, K., Bauman, L., Christ, G., Krown, S. (1988) Patterns of Change in Sexual Behavior Among Gay Men in New York City. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 17, 6: 481 - 497

Signorile, M. (1997) Leveraging hypocrisy for gays. Providence Journal. Aug.30.

Socarides, C. (1995) Homosexuality: A Freedom too Far. Phoenix: Adam Margrave.

Stall, R., Mc Kusick, L, Wiley, J., Coates, T., Ostrow, D. (1986) Alcohol and drug use during sexual activity and compliance with safe sex guidelines for AIDS: The AIDS Behavioral Research Project. HealthEducation Quarterly. 13, 4: 359 - 371.

Stall, R., Coates, T., Hoff, C. (1988) Behavioral Risk Reduction for HIV Infection among Gay and Bisexual Men. American Psychologist. 43, 11: 878 - 885.

Sullivan, A. (1995) Virtually Normal. New York: Alfred Knopf.

Surawicz, C., Roberts, P., Rompalo, A., Quinn, T., Holmes, K., Stamm, W. (1987) Intestinal Spirochetosis in Homosexual Men. The American Journal of Medicine. 82: 587 - 592.

Surawicz, C., Critchlow, C., Sayer, J., Hurt, C., Hawes, C., Kirby, P., Goldbaum, G., Kiviat, N. (1995) High Grade Anal Dysplasia in Visually Normal Mucosa in Homosexual Men: Seven Cases. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 90, 10: 1176 - 1178.

Thompson, J., Freischlag, J., Thomas, D. (1983) Amebic Liver Abscess in a Homosexual Man. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 153 - 155.

Vaid, U. (1995) Virtual Equality: Mainstreaming of Gay & Lesbian Liberation. New York: Anchor Book.

Waldholz, M. (1997) Inside Science's Race to Learn Why Some Seem Immune to AIDS. New York Times, Jan. 23.

Warner, D., Boles, J., Goldsmith, J., Hatcher, R. (1997) Disclosure of Condom Breakage to Sexual Partners. Journal of the American Medical Association. 278, 4: 291 - 292

Wegner, S. et al. (1999) High frequency antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-1 from recently infected therapy naive individuals. Abstracts of the 6th Conference on Retroviruses and AIDS. (abstract only)

Winklestein, W, et al (1987) Sexual practices and risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus: the San Francisco Men's Health Study. JAMA. 257: 321 - 325.(referenced in Osmond 1994)

____ AIDS-associated virus linked to blood cancer. New York Times (reprinted Providence Journal June 20, 1997)

_____Chatrooms linked to syphilis (1999) (Reuters) August 23, http://news.excite.com/news/r/990823/18/tech-syphilis

____ HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report (1997) , US HIV and AIDS cases reported through December 1996. 8, 2.

____ Lesbian sex may transmit HIV. (1993) AIDS Weekly. 36, 34: 8

____ Lesbian transmission of HIV reported. (1994) AIDS Weekly. Jan 31: 7.

____New Survey Says Change is Possible (1997) NARTH Bulletin, 5, 2:1.

____ Seven percent of young homosexual men infected with HIV.  Associated Press . Feb. 11, 1996

____Trends in Gonorrhea in Homosexually Active Men -- King County, Washington, 1989. (1989) Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report. 38: 762 - 764

____Venereal Diseases (1967) Encyclopedia Britanica.

ONE OUT OF TWO — Table of Contents
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Original text on Dale's Disk — aidsb.rtf - Oct.14, 1999
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